Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, personal communications)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, personal communications)

(20) The expression having ‘brother’, aha for the BT, features simultaneously become enhanced, although this setting is even used in Turoyo. Hertevin provides one another ?aha and you can ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

At exactly the same time, additional NENA, i have other terms: https://datingranking.net/cs/victoria-milan-recenze/ Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) That instead mystical item that is attested in all NENA languages but Sanandaj Christian (which probably only a chance pit on research) was aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends this particular phrase comes on root ql ‘to getting crooked’. Most of the dialects make use of the setting aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Various other phrase discussed by the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty two, 134) try baxta ‘woman’, which includes supplanted new Syriac atta in every NENA, yet not for the Turoyo or Mandaic. It keyword generally seems to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is fascinating to see that an uneven plural endures in the multiple languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you can Halabja inse.

(23) An urgent advancement discussed of the Noldeke (1868, 59) try rxata, comparable to Syriac rhat. The change away from h in order to x contained in this one word try utilized in all of the NENA dialects where the verb is actually attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Other unforeseen advancement is the NENA verb ‘fear’, which takes this new forms zda?good, zdaya, and zdala throughout the certain languages. Macuch and you will Panoussi (1974, 50) promote a prospective derivation regarding Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Versions towards the infixed d can be found throughout the new NENA languages where in fact the sources was attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Never assume all of the determining features of NENA are observed in a choice of Turoyo or Mandaic

I think that significantly more than causes it to be obvious the NENA languages express numerous unique qualities that are discovered none in the earlier attested kinds of Aramaic neither on most other living dialects. These characteristics variety across the domain names out of phonology, morphology, therefore the lexicon.

Specifically, all of the languages out-of NENA concur when you look at the conditions dos, 9, 14, 15, 16, 21, and you may twenty-two. All the languages where i’ve pointers as well as acknowledge conditions 20, 23, and you can twenty four.

All but Halabja concur in the standards 8 and you will eleven. Traditional six is situated in most of the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and Sanandaj Christian.

Even with its internal divisions, the fresh NENA languages function a stunningly coherent category, split demonstrably from both Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The position of those dialects outside the NENA pale may be out of matter.

The degree to which has actually was common across NENA is very impressive whenever we look at the immense differences when considering various dialects. The new dictate of almost every other dialects to the NENA might have been both deep and you will wide, and standard of shared intelligibility ranging from languages can be very small. Many shared innovations dispute highly to possess a common origin off the latest NENA dialects, either in an individual dialect or perhaps in several directly relevant dialects. Meanwhile, we can discern a number of important packages out-of isoglosses hence depict new boundaries off dialect communities.

a) Brand new dialect out of Halabja does not show some essential designs and that are located thanks to all of the rest of the languages. It generally does not mode a beneficial CCiC-ce preterite off intransitive verbs (8), it has no b(it)- coming marker (10), and it has no 3rd individual just one copula that have step 1 (11). This is by far the most important section ranging from dialects of NENA. It indicates that the leftover dialects setting a team whereby innovations pass on if you’re Halabja remained unaffected of the them.

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